Understanding SIP�Part IV: Describing the SIP Session

In the previous tutorials in our study of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP),
we considered the history
and architecture of SIP
, the capabilities
of the protocol
, and the message
formats
. In this tutorial, we will extend the discussion of the SIP messages
to consider the role of the Session Description Protocol (SDP) in describing
the parameters for those SIP messages.

SIP is an application protocol that initiates communication sessions on behalf
of end users. The SIP architecture (defined in RFC 3261) builds upon two other
Internet application protocols, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). In keeping with the objective of a consistent
Internet Protocol-based architecture, we discovered similarities between HTTP
addresses (Uniform Resource Locators or URLs), and SIP addresses, called SIP
Uniform Resource Indicators, or SIP URIs. There are many forms of SIP URIs,
however one form is quite similar to email addresses used with SMTP, such as
sip:[email protected]

Another element that SIP borrows from other protocols is the method by which
sessions are described: Information that must be communicated between the
two end parties at the beginning of the session. These two protocols are the
Session Announcement Protocol (SAP), which is defined in RFC 2974, and the Session
Description Protocol (SDP), which is defined in RFC 2327. In brief, SAP provides
a mechanism to periodically advertise multimedia sessions, and to communicate
relevant session information to prospective participants. It was developed in
support of the Internet Multicast Backbone (Mbone), so that interested parties
could be made aware of currently operating sessions.

SDP defines the format to describe a communications session, and as such, can
be used with a number of transport protocols, such as SAP, SIP, HTTP, and others.
RFC 2327 notes several key pieces of information that are provided by SDP:

  • Session Name and Purpose
  • Time(s) the session is active
  • The media comprising the session
  • How to receive those media (addresses, ports, formats, etc.)

Other information that may be optionally provided includes:

  • Bandwidth to be used by the conference
  • Contact information for the person responsible for the session

The SDP format includes a number of lines of text, of the form <type>
= <value>, where the <type> defines a unique session parameter,
and the <value> provides a specific value for that parameter. RFC 2327
defines the following values, with those marked with the asterisk (*) being
optional. Note that there are three main parts to the description, detailing
the Session, the Time, and the Media:

Session description
     v= (protocol version)
     o= (owner/creator and session identifier)
     s= (session name)
     i=* (session information)
     u=* (URI of description)
     e=* (email address)
     p=* (phone number)
     c=* (connection information – not required if included in
all media)
     b=* (bandwidth information)

One or more time descriptions (see below)
     z=* (time zone adjustments)
     k=* (encryption key)
     a=* (zero or more session attribute lines)

Zero or more media descriptions (see below)

Time description
     t= (time the session is active)
     r=* (zero or more repeat times)

Media description
     m= (media name and transport address)
     i=* (media title)
     c=* (connection information – optional if included at session-level)

     b=* (bandwidth information)
     k=* (encryption key)
     a=* (zero or more media attribute lines)

Below is an example session description, taken from RFC 2327:

     v=0
     o=mhandley 2890844526 2890842807
IN IP4 126.16.64.4
     s=SDP Seminar
     i=A Seminar on the session description protocol
     u=http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/M.Handley/sdp.03.ps
     [email protected] (Mark Handley)
     c=IN IP4 224.2.17.12/127
     t=2873397496 2873404696
     a=recvonly
     m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0
     m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 31
     m=application 32416 udp wb
     a=orient:portrait

Note the two media descriptions (the lines beginning with m), which define
an audio and a video profile. These profiles are described in the Real Time
Protocol (RTP) specification, RFC 3550, section 13, and the companion document,
RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control, RFC
3551, section 6.

In our next tutorial, we will return to the SIP message formats, and discover
how the SDP descriptor is embedded within SIP messages to convey session parameters
between the parties, including those audio/video profiles.

Copyright Acknowledgement: © 2005 DigiNet ® Corporation, All Rights Reserved


Author’s Biography
Mark A. Miller, P.E. is President of DigiNet ® Corporation, a Denver-based consulting engineering firm. He is the author of many books on networking technologies, including Voice over IP Technologies, and Internet Technologies Handbook, both published by John Wiley & Sons.

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