You keep hearing “Linux is like way cool! Use Linux!” Linux is cool,
and even useful, but migrating from other platforms or integrating
Linux hosts into an existing network takes a bit more work and
knowledge than giving a careless wave of your hand, which is a minor
detail that seems to escape the attention of enthusiastic Linux
evangelists. Most sysadmins do not have the luxury of starting from
scratch, and must make do with existing setups of varying (in)sanity
The premier program for integrating Windows and Linux is Samba, which
ace admins already know and love. Samba can be a cross-platform print
and file server, a primary domain controller for a Windows LAN, and
even a full member of an NT or Active Directory domain. The difficulty
with running mixed Linux and Windows networks is managing user and
group accounts and logins. The two platforms manage them in very
different ways, which makes it difficult to integrate the two. A common
method is to maintain two duplicate sets of users, groups, and
passwords, which of course is less than ideal. (The word “sucks” can be
confidently applied to this scenario.)
Fortunately the brainiacs behind Samba invented winbind to
provide a unified logon, thus saving overworked admins from silliness
like doing everything twice, and users from the horrors of trying to
track what they are logging into, and which login to use. Winbind lets
a Linux box become a full member of a Samba, Windows NT4 or Active
Directory domain, and view Windows users and groups as Linux users and
groups. All user and group queries from a Linux box are resolved by the
Winbind is ideal for admins who wish to add Linux workstations or
servers to an existing Windows domain. This allows a graceful
introduction with a minimum of hassle. Servers and workstations slide
right in without troubling users or bothering pointy-haired bosses.
You should also use winbind when you have hosts that are not members of
the domain accessing a Samba or Windows domain. This is an important
step to prevent unauthorized access from same-named foreign user
accounts. For example, without winbind user Carla who is not a member
of the domain will be able to access the files of user Carla who is a
member of the domain. This, of course, is bad. Winbind does not allow
this to happen; the foreign Carla will be given a different SID
(security identifier) and so will not be able to get into the wrong
If you’re using a simple peer network without user authentication,
don’t bother with winbind. Just for you bullet-point aficionados, here
is a summary of what winbind does:
- Authenticates users
- Manages passwords
- Allows Linux users to use Windows domain resources as though they
were native Linux resources
- User and group ID allocation
Winbind makes use of the both the Windows NT RPC (remote procedure
calls) and the native protocols of Active Directory. The Samba team
received no assistance from Microsoft in decoding these calls, but
somehow through persistence and tireless effort captured and decoded
the signals over the wire. Moral: if interoperability and customer
service are your desire, stick with the free/open source world.
For a NT4/Samba domain, you need Samba 3, winbind, NSS (name service
switch), and PAM (pluggable authentication modules). For Active
Directory you need Samba 3, winbind, LDAP, and Kerberos.
Using PAM allows authentication and password management to take place
on the domain controller. PAM also lets the stern, controlling sysadmin
set different authentication policies for different situations, such as
for applications, or for users from different locations.
NSS provides a mechanism for hostnames, mail aliases, and user data to
be resolved from various sources. Active Directory uses LDAP and
Kerberos natively, which Linux can also do.
Windows uses RIDs (relative identifiers) for users and groups. Winbind
converts these to Linux user and group numbers in a persistent database
file called winbind_idmap.tdb. This is not used when LDAP is
used. Additionally, to speed up performance, winbind uses caching. The
cache responds to requests, rather than hitting the domain controller
for every request.
Samba and Winbind also work for just about any Unix variant. We’ll use
Linux in this series.
Collecting the necessary bits will vary depending on which Linux
distribution you are using. You definitely want the latest stable
version of Samba. Debian’s Samba package includes everything you need,
including support for PAM already compiled in. Most RPMs do the same.
If you want to build from sources, see Resources.
If you are modifying an existing Samba server, back up everything! Back
up smb.conf, /etc/pam.d, and /etc/nsswitch.conf. Messing
up your PAM configuration means you may not be able to log in at all,
so you must also have a rescue disk, such as Knoppix, at hand.
Come back next week to learn how to configure all these things to make
winbind do the heavy lifting for you.