Build Resource-Friendly Web Services With Lighthttpd

Apache has long been the Big Kahuna in the server room. Not only
is it the leading Web server in the world, powering more than 58
percent of Web servers according to the oft-quoted Netcraft Web
Server Survey, it is also the most widely used free and open source
software. Not that Apache is without its competitors and
alternatives. From Microsoft IIS to Sun Java Web Server, a variety
of secondary Web servers continue to crunch away in Apache’s

Lighttpd, a fairly recent entrant to the open source Web server
field, is attracting remarkable enthusiasm. Its April 2007 debut on
the Netcraft Web server survey officially put lighttpd (pronounced
“lighty”) on the map. With 1.2 percent of the nearly 114 million
Web servers out there powered by lighttpd, it’s population is
sizable, albeit not about to topple Apache for the crown just yet.
But lighttpd is well on its way to overtaking Sun for third place,
driven primarily by support from administrators looking for an
Apache alternative.

Apache, in a nutshell, has grown feature-rich and
resource-heavy. This is less a critique than a reflection of its
evolution and broad power. Lighttpd grew out of a thesis project by
German developer Jan Kneschke in a proof-of-concept attempt to
deliver 10,000 concurrent connections from one server. Unlike
Apache 1.x’s forking model and Apache 2.x’s multithreaded model,
lighttpd is built around a single-thread, single-process core that
uses native event handlers built into the underlying operating
system. Its tagline is “fly light,” and indeed it does. Rather than
integrate modules like PHP into the server process, lighttpd passes
dynamic requests to external modules through the retro FastCGI

The performance benefits of lighttpd, particularly for static or
PHP-based pages, are no longer just proof of concept. Lighttpd has
been put into production use at high-traffic sites like
and, both of which serve more than 1,000 page requests
per second. Lighttpd is even used to serve portions of major sites,
including YouTube, Wikipedia and Meebo. YouTube, for example,
delivers static content like Flash videos via lighttpd while still
using Apache to handle dynamic pages. This hybrid architecture of
pairing lighttpd with a full-featured but more resource-hungry
server is becoming an increasingly popular way to scale

For administrators, installing lighttpd is a manual undertaking.
You can download the 700KB tar distribution and compile from source
on most Unix-based platforms or locate a pre-packaged binary, such
as an RPM or DEB, for particular Linux distributions. On Linux and
Unix, lighttpd is administered entirely by command. Alternatively,
the 2MB Windows distribution includes a simple graphical installer
and server start/stop shortcuts.

Many lighttpd adopters will have previous experience with
Apache. Like Apache, lighttpd is configured through a central
configuration file. However, it uses a very different configuration
syntax. Whereas Apache’s syntax is XML-like, the syntax for
lighttpd configuration resembles a scripting language. Although
preference for either is a matter of taste, lighttpd enthusiasts
believe its configuration language is more concise and yet more
flexible (e.g., you can use conditionals) compared to Apache.

Developers converting sites from Apache to lighttpd take note:
If you rely heavily on rewrite rules for Apache, they may need to
be reformulated for the lighttpd rewrite engine.

A growing range of modules for lighttpd expand on its core
functionality, including authentication, content compression,
content caching and support for WebDAV. PHP is perhaps the most
popular processing complement to lighttpd. At first, lighttpd’s
support for PHP processing seems downright old-fashioned: It passes
requests through the FastCGI module to an external PHP processor.
Unlike Apache installations with PHP integrated, this allows the
weight of PHP to be invoked only when needed, saving memory and
potentially supporting more simultaneous connections in available

Lighttpd also leverages FastCGI to scale efficiently. You can
install lighttpd on a public-facing server, and set up a farm of
FastCGI servers behind it to process dynamic requests. A simple
configuration line tells lighttpd the IPs for the array of FastCGI
servers. Lighttpd will load-balance requests among the FastCGI
servers, making it easy to add or remove servers, as needed, to
handle changes in dynamic load.

Because lighttpd has been designed from the ground up to serve
thousands of requests concurrently, it is fast becoming the resource
friendly Web server du jour. However, the lighttpd community is
significantly smaller and less mature than that of Apache.
Consequently, development and support is a growing but still
specialized endeavor.

Pros: Extremely fast, especially for static content; Low
memory footprint; Proven for thousands of connections.
Cons: Some reports of stability issues, incompatibility with
some Apache configurations; Small development and support

Original Review Version: 1.4.15

Review courtesy of ServerWatch

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